Uplift Performance of Anchor Plates Embedded in Cement-Stabilized Backfill

Aseries of pullout tests is presented in this paper and is used to identify the kinematics of failure and the uplift response of circular anchor
plates embedded in sand-cement stabilized layers at distinct normalized embedment depths (H/D), where H is the thickness of the treated layer andD
is the diameter of the anchor plates. Experimental results show that the uplift capacity of anchor plates embedded in sand backfill layers increases
considerably after mixing 3% cement with the backfill material. Distinct failure mechanisms observed for anchor plates embedded in both sand and
cement-stabilized backfills are shown to be a function of H/D. The addition of cement to the sand backfill leads to an increase in uplift capacity of 9
times for anH/D ratio of 1.0 and of 13 times for an H/D ratio of 2.0. For sand backfill withH/D51:0, the failure surface had a truncated cone shape
with a vertical inclination of 22,whereas forH/Dof 1.5 and 2.0, radial crackingwas observed, andfinal failure surfaces had inclinations of 26 and 30,
respectively. Pullout of anchor plates in cement-stabilized backfills atH/Dratios ranging from 1.0 to 2.0 exhibit two distinct characteristics: (a) a linear
elastic deformation response at small pullout displacements and (b) a later stage where radial fracturing of the stabilized backfill leads to hardening just
prior to failure. Radial cracks starting at the top of the layer near the center of the anchor plates start to propagate only at about 90% of the final uplift
failure load, irrespective of H/D. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0000785.

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